Long Suffering Brits

The Battle of Britain,
Future Shock

By Wallace Wood

Click starred images for a larger view

Americans liked to see "Kilroy Was Here" scrawled on walls to show they were there first in World War II. The Germans might have written "Kilroy Vas Here" in America if it weren't for the Battle of Britain. Three months of Future Shock changed the war.

Probably the greatest air battle of all time in importance, it determined the fate of nations 65 years ago. A largely inexperienced and uneducated bunch of young flyers from around the British Commonwealth faced highly-trained, well-equipped, and often war-experienced German
pilots — even if the Germans were as young as they were. And the Germans had more combat airplanes. Just before the battle began, the Luftwaffe had 2,600 fighters and bombers ready. The British, 640 fighters.

In 1940, Hitler's German war machine had overrun most of Europe. Only one country stood in its way in the West: the British Isles and England, isolated and nearly helpless. The United States was staying out of the European War at that time, but Hitler had his dreams. He would get around to America in good time. At first, Hitler didn't want to invade England. He admired the Brits and their Empire, now a Commonwealth of nations. Surely the British would come to their senses and offer a peace settlement, seeing what his armies had done.

Joseph Stalin, Soviet Union Dictator
Who he really wanted to destroy was Communists as well as Jews, and the Soviet Union (now Russia) was the most successful Communist country. It was a vast land with oil and other resources and room—"Lebensraum" (this is a CORRECTION! Click here for details) for his Master Race of Germans to occupy. They would move in as soon as they got rid of the people who lived there, of course, or made them slaves. Weren't they called "Slavs"? (Slaves). Even though he made a non-aggression pact with Stalin in 1938 so his armies could go about conquering Europe, Hitler had no intention of honoring that piece of paper. Germany and the Communists had already clashed in the Spanish Civil War in 1936-39, but at arm's length. Hitler backed the winning side, Francisco Franco and his Nationalists, giving them
aid as a test of his new military. His Condor Legion bombers are said to have killed 10,000 people. To simplify a complicated and fanatical war involving International Brigades and many parties, it's enough to say the Socialists/ Communists were the losers in Spain. The Fascists were the winners. Hitler could hardly wait to attack the Soviet Union. Hitler made his generals very nervous.

The stiff-necked British attitude changed his mind about invading Britain. Neville Chamberlain had given away Czechoslovakia for "peace in our time". But England and France had declared war after the invasion of Poland. Hitler's peace was the grave. The Brits' weren't backing down even after they and their French army allies had been kicked off the European Continent. The Brits' and what was left of the French forces escaped with the shreds of their armies by a massive and daring boat rescue at Dunkirk on the French coast in June of 1940.

"…The Battle of France is over. I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin," new Prime Minister Winston Churchill told the British

Neville Chamberlain
Parliament and its people in June. He had nothing to offer them but "blood, toil, tears and sweat," yet the Brits' would fight.

For a time, it was what Americans called a "Phony War". Since war was declared in September of 1939 things were quiet at home. There were submarine sinking of ships, and a German bomber had crashed, destroying 50 houses and killing numerous civilians in England. But the "Blitzkrieg" or Lightning War that rolled across country after country didn't arrive in Britain. The Wehrmacht tanks and troops couldn't swim the English Channel. Yet.

It's a Long, Long Time
From May to December

(Quotes are from the Battle of Britain Historical Society archives and other sources)

On May 10, 1940, Germany attacked Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and France. By June 18, the countries were conquered. All British forces had withdrawn from France. Perhaps to distract Hitler from gazing east, or because it was natural after the British disaster at Dunkirk, German generals began looking seriously at the idea of invading Britain. Their thinking ran like this:

Evacuation at Dunkirk. See Volume 5.

"How long would they last in battle? They ran from Dunkirk; they deserted France completely for the safety of home. England is there for the taking."

--- General Hugo Sperrle.

"My Luftwaffe is invincible. And now we turn to England. How long will this one last -- two, three weeks?"

--- Hermann Goering, head of the
Luftwaffe (German air force)

"We might, had the plans been ready, have crossed to England with strong forces after the Dunkirk operation,"

---General Guenther Blumentritt in July, 1940.

Plans were hastily made to do just that, and presented to an impatient Hitler by mid-July. Germany could land forces in Southern England within months.

"Since England, in spite of her hopeless military situation, shows no signs of being ready to come to a compromise, I have decided to prepare a landing operation against England, and, if necessary, to carry it out," Hitler said in a general order.

"The preparations must also create such conditions as will make a landing in England possible. The English Air Force must be reduced morally and physically (so) that it is unable to deliver any significant attack on the German crossing."

The man who at one stage did not want to have anything to do with an invasion of Britain was now determined that these rushed plans for ‘Operation Sea Lion' should go ahead, according to the Historical Society's chronicler.

August was a bit too soon. Only a month away. Make it September 17, 1940, Hitler and his staff decided. By September 17, 1940 something else was decided

Long-Suffering Brits'

A cartoon published after bomb attacks on London's subways and buses in 2005 was captioned, "Britons In Panic Over Terror Attacks". It showed Britons in a pub, calmly quaffing their beer as they listened to the television reports. They had been through it before. In 1940, the British knew the worst was coming, and quietly went about preparing for it. They dug air raid shelters outside their homes. They blacked out their windows so night bombers couldn't see where to drop their loads. They planted gardens and bought rabbits for future food. Emergency crews and equipment were recruited. Neighborhood watch committees checked to see the blackout curtains were secure—and rocks were sometimes thrown through windows when independent or slack residents didn't do their jobs. Food rationing with coupon books came, and goods on store shelves went. Officialdom entered everyone's lives, and news and directions came every night over the radio.

See London Child — 1940

Knowing the first attacks would come by air, Britain's aircraft industry

was already on a war footing. Their list of available interception aircraft wasn't long or entirely satisfactory:

Gloster Gladiator Thanks to Military Ultimate Collection

"…Production of the Gladiator was only short lived. It never did prove itself as a fighting machine and (Gladiators) were classed as death traps against the Luftwaffe Bf-109s very early in WW II. Only 378 Mark I's were built." Enough said.
BOULTON PAUL DEFIANT --Hurricane look-alike with rear gunner turret and no front guns. "When they first appeared during the Battle of France, they had the element of surprise when attacking the German bombers." They looked like Hurricanes and used the actual Hurricane fighters as cover. The Germans had no idea that the British had an aircraft that could fire at them from the rear. "In the early days, the Defiants had much success…but once

Thanks to
The Aeroplane Art Company
the Luftwaffe pilots got their measure, the glory days of the Defiant were over." Incapable of dog fighting with no front guns, the Defiant was slow and best suited as a target. Once hit, the gun turrets were hard to get out of. Many gunners and pilots went down with their planes. So many Defiants were lost in the Battle of France and in the early stages of the Battle of Britain, that "…Defiant squadrons were withdrawn to western and northern airfields away from the main combat areas".

Blenheim 4s. Thanks to The Royal Air Force - Home Page
BLENHEIM –all metal twin engine fighter.

"In 1938 the decision was made to convert the Blenheim 1 to a long range fighter. Although it was found to be just as cumbersome (as the Defiant) and its fire power was to prove quite inadequate, the Air Ministry at the time thought that it was better to put the aircraft into service than nothing at all."
The Blenheim was eventually assigned duties as a night fighter and did well, considering its shortcomings.
BRISTOL BEAUFIGHTER –all-metal twin engine two place fighter and torpedo bomber.

A very different and very capable aircraft developed without government help by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Fast for its time—321 mph tops--with four cannons and six .303 machine guns, the Beaufighter was outstanding as a night fighter or torpedo bomber. There were not enough of them at the start of the battle.

Bristol Beaufighter Thanks to Regia Aeronautica Italiana

Hawker Hurricane Thanks to Post-war Military Aviation, Vic Flintham

HAWKER HURRICANE—part wood, part metal single engine, low wing fighter

Britain's first aircraft to top 300 miles per hour in level flight, the Hurricane was a winning fighter that was ready when the war began. It accounted for more enemy aircraft than any other type, and was the most produced British fighter at that time. See Letter to editor. Made partly of wood covered with fabric like the "old" planes, it was easy to build.

SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE—all metal single engine, low wing fighter. Fabric-covered control surfaces.

The Spitfire was born out of a re-designed 1934 racing plane, and became Britain's most famous fighter. German aircraft engineers laughed at it as a "sport plane". The laughter was over when the

Spitfire Thanks to Aeroplane Art Company
German air offensive began in July of 1940. Slightly faster and much more maneuverable than its battle rival, the German Me-109, it eventually reached over 400 mph in later versions and was used throughout the war. Armed only with .303 machine guns for the battle, it had no deadly cannons to match its German rival.

Against them when the battle began were a variety of impressive German aircraft—impressive on paper.

Messerschmitt Me-109 Thanks to Centro de Computacion (University of Chile)
MESSERSCHMITT Me-109 (Bf-109)– all metal single engine, low wing fighter.

The "Luftwaffe" had a battle-tested veteran in the Me-109. This single-seater wiped the old style biplanes from the air in a World War II warmup, the Spanish Civil War in 1936-39. Fast (348 mph or more), maneuverable, and hard to stall or spin, this "butcher bird" was armed with machine guns and cannon. One good cannon shell
hit could blow the tail or wings off another aircraft. Compare that to the British standard guns--.303 caliber bullets. It was such a good aircraft the Luftwaffe used them throughout the Second World War. Constant updating with better engines, supercharging and combat fuel injection kept them competitive. Rumors of weak landing gear were unfounded, though the narrow gear made landing and taxiing difficult on rough ground. But the same could be said of the Spitfire. Limited fuel range handicapped the Me-109 in the Battle of Britain.

MESSERSCHMITT Me-110 (Bf-110) – all metal twin engine fighter

Messerschmitt, by the way, simply means "Mister Smith" in English. "Bf" is sometimes used as the abbreviated name of the

Messerschmitt Me-110 Thanks to http://www.modelpartner.ig.pl
actual aircraft company. Like the English Blenheim, the Me-110 was too slow and not maneuverable enough against faster fighters. The Me-110 made a good fighter-bomber when there was air superiority and no attackers. Used for escort duties to protect bombers against English Spits' and Hurricanes, it turned out to need protection itself. Me-109 pilots often had to rescue the slow-turning and slow-accelerating ‘110's.

Stuka 87 Thanks to
I Love NY Photos

JUNKERS Ju-87 "STUKA" –all metal single engine, gull-wing dive-bomber Another Spanish Civil War terror, the Ju-87 Stuka was widely feared. It was probably the best-known German aircraft. By diving on a target, their air sirens screaming to throw more fright ahead of them on the ground, Stuka pilots got accuracy with bombs that regular bombers couldn't match. It was a terror weapon. Top

speed of 195 mph was seldom reached except diving. Cruising speed was about 118 mph and climb was slow. With fighter protection overhead, the Stuka was a ship killer and Eastern Front tank buster.
JUNKERS Ju-88 –twin engine medium bomber and dive bomber
Never making a name for itself like its brother, the Stuka, the Ju-88 was much the fastest bomber at over 300 mph (cruising, 239 mph) and its quick acceleration in a dive saved many pilots. Losses were far less than the Stuka, the Dornier, or the Heinkel. It could carry a bomb load of 5,500 pounds, over two tons, one of the heaviest. Well armed, its worst feature was that the Flight Engineer had the task of operating four machine guns, always having to jump from one gun to another.


DORNIER Do-17 Thanks to
Virtual Aviation Museum

DORNIER Do-17 –twin engine medium bomber.

The Lufwaffe was short of really heavy bombers, but Hitler and his air minister Hermann Goering thought medium bombers could finish off what the Stuka's couldn't. The Dornier could carry a ton of bombs and was considered fast when first flown in 1937—at 248 mph tops. It flew in the Spanish Civil War, like the Me-109, the

Stuka and the Heinkel He-111. Its bombs helped heap up the death toll of over 10,000 people by the German's Condor Legion in Spain. But this slow aircraft paid the price over England.

HEINKEL He –111 --medium bomber/night bomber/glider tug and V-1 missile launcher. Twin engine. Crew of four or five.

Converted from airliner use, the Heinkel was larger than other bombers. It took part in the "terror bombing" of the Spanish city of Guernica that killed so many civilians. Its nominal top speed was 271 mph, but it usually flew closer to its sea level top of 225 mph or less. Carried a ton of bombs internally.

Heinkel He-111 Thanks to Richard Seaman's web site

V1 "Buzzbomb" Courtesy Indiana Military Org
The Heinkel launched the first V-1 bombs airborne. The V-1's needed speed to start their pulse-jet engines. Two He-111z's bomber fuselages (Zwilling or doubles) were joined on a single wing, with a fifth engine in the center for towing gliders.

The Invasion Plan

Once the Luftwaffe aircraft cleared the skies of British planes, an invasion of Britain could take place, code-named Operation Sea Lion.

Phase One. Probing air attacks in the South of England to find any weaknesses. Draw the British interceptors out by attacking their ships in the ocean channel between England and the occupied countries of France, Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands (Holland). Shoot the Brits' down and wear down their defenses by attrition.

Phase Two. Bomb the English airfields into oblivion and force the Royal Air Force (RAF) to fly long distances to fight from Scotland or other British sites. Destroy the RAF if possible. Air supremacy would be achieved by military means. Hitler forbade any bombing inside civilian cities like London, but military targets like aircraft factories were fair game,
and so were loading docks and ships. The Stukas would bomb not only airbases and factories, but blow out the troublesome radar stations along the Southern Coast.

Phase Three would be the invasion. German troops, tanks and armored vehicles would cross the Channel by ship and land at places along the English coast from Dover in the east to Falmouth in the west. Like he expected the British to do later, Hitler approved of sending landing ships across from France at the narrowest spot in the Channel. Some 30,000 paratroopers would drop in first to cut lines of communication and raise general hell. Then over 100,000 Germans would storm ashore from landing craft and work their way across the country.

The trouble was, the British didn't cooperate. RAF Fighter Command Air Marshall Hugh Dowding smelled out the German plan for Phase One and kept his interceptors close to home. He didn't have nearly enough fighters and couldn't afford to lose them protecting shipping. He turned down Churchill's almost begging request to help the French, and refused to send fighters when Stukas began bombing English ships tied up at the docks. Dowding said they were too far from RAF air bases. Churchill called the RAF fighter pilots "Dowding's Chicks". The name stuck for the old mother hen's flyers.

The Pilots

Phase Two went well enough at the start. The attackers would come over in groups of various sizes, usually less than a hundred bombers and fighters in one group, but sometimes many more. Hugh Dowding's other "chicks" were the radar stations. He worked hard to set up an interception system before the real war began. Radar operators would spot the Luftwaffe formations crossing the Channel and relay information to the Area HQ, which notified anti-aircraft gun units, coastal spotters, and barrage balloon groups (the balloons steel cables kept the Germans from going low)

Fighter Command HQ put out telephone calls to the nearest fighter bases for a "scramble". German pilots wondered why Spits' and Hurricanes were always waiting for them until they found out about

This is one of the radar towers built on the South Coast. By 1939 18 radar stations like this covered the east and south coast of England. In 1940 a ground-based radar was introduced to detect low-flying aircraft and ships:..
Thanks to The Institution of Electrical Engineers
radar. The Stukas bombed the radar stations as well as the bases. But the radar towers were easy to put back up and the Stukas weren't. The "terror weapon" Stukas turned out to be easy targets for good fighters.

"The waiting was the worst part, we'd sit around playing poker with that tension pit in our stomachs - it was almost a relief when we heard the phone ring to scramble."

--Group Captain Peter Matthews

German aircraft losses were higher than expected early in the Battle of Britain as the collection of RAF pilots from all over the British Commonwealth proved a stubborn bunch. Even the official RAF tactics of keeping rigid military formations in the air were a little stupid. Adjustments were made, even as young RAF fighters gave their lives to the German's use of more sensible and practical "Finger Four" formations.

The movie image of dashing British Royal Air Force pilots from the highest levels of society tearing around in their sports cars before tearing up German aircraft isn't entirely wrong. "601 Squadron had a number of these, and the parking lot at Tangmere (airbase) used to look like a starting point for a 'concours de elegance' with brightly coloured MG's and Austin Healey's looking in far better shape than the Hurricanes that they flew," the Historical Society author wrote.

About 3,500 RAF pilots took part in the Battle of Britain as pilots were killed and replaced. About 200 had a public school education. Most were bank clerks, farm boys, factory workers, shop assistants and hundreds of young men who had just ordinary jobs.

"We were all amateurs. Yet the young pilots lived their lives to the full because they knew that any day they'd be dead."

--Gregory Kirkorian. RAF Squadron Intelligence

Most of the home-recruited RAF defenders had no combat experience, and many had never flown before. Desperately in need, The RAF gave pilots perhaps 30 days training. What experience there was came from the last desperate days in France.

""Look, you've got to face it, France was a shambles. Everyone tried their best, but most of us pilots were not only new to flying in combat, we were new to flying in general."

--- Sgt G.C. Bennett, 609 Squadron. (Later killed in 1941)

The destroyed air forces of Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland did provide pilots with combat experience. Looking for revenge, these defeated pilots made their own way to England by hook or crook in the middle of war. They became the 303 Polish and 310 Czech squadrons and had a reputation for cold hatred of Germans.

Canada was given 401 Squadron. Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Belgium did not have their own units during the Battle of Britain but their pilots gave their lives anyway.

Pilots awaiting call Thanks to 24 Hour Museum

Bennett described combat:

"If an Me (Messerschmitt Me-109) was coming towards you firing all guns, you would push the stick forward, your heart seems to go up into your throat as he flies past you. You know he's going to make a tight turn, the Me was like that, and your ticker would be pounding nine to the dozen as you looked in the mirror, looked from side to side but couldn't see him, but you knew he was there, instinct told you he was there. For the new pilot it was panic stations. Okay, we were told not to panic, but it was human nature." In a state of panic, Bennett said, "It was not unusual to even forget what your code name was" while your squad leader was yelling it at you that the Me-109 was right behind.

The Other Pilots

What was it like on the other side of the Swastika? Hitler had taken a discouraged, mauled, losing nation in deep financial and emotional depression after the "Great War"—now called the First World War—and pulled his country up by its bootstraps. With a little help from investors, including some U.S. businessmen, he got industry working again and stopped the growing starvation. No wonder he was popular with the German people. The street kids he put into "Youth Groups." The military he woke up. The population perked up and elected him Chancellor of Germany in 1933. That his brutal NAZIonal Socialist Party "brownshirts" used a great deal of violence was only a prelude to the violence he planned against Jews and other racially inferior types. Which happened to include many people living in other nations near Germany.

Germany was allowed no air force under the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I ("The Great War"). It had to sign to end a losing war. Young pilots got thorough training in sport aircraft or airliners that had a surprising resemblance to fighter or bomber cockpits. When Hitler dropped the pretense and ordered industry to start turning out real fighters, bombers, tanks, big and small guns and other weapons, his young flyers were the best trained. Many got combat experience in the Spanish Civil War as well as the early days of WW II.

"We were idealists with the honor of being part of the most elite fighting force in the world, " a young cadet said about his graduation day. Hitler gave the commencement address to 3,000 new Luftwaffe recruits."...We listen to the spell-binding words of our leader and accept them with all our hearts. Never before have we experienced such a deep sense of patriotic devotion towards our beloved German fatherland. I shall never, never forget the expressions of rapture which I saw on the faces around me..."

When the bullets flew, there was some disbelief among pilots without combat training. "It was a kind of ticky, ticky, tick," recalled ex Me-109 pilot Bruno Petrenko. The small caliber British bullets were hitting, but his aircraft's armor saved him. "Anyway, what I did was evade whoever was firing at me by nose-diving. Now, I thought, I've got rid of it, so I climbed up again trying to catch up with the unit. "I remember thinking, Well, this isn't so bad. The protection had held, but I was still climbing and suddenly there was a second attack from behind. It was so fast that I couldn't evade before it came; at least, I as a beginner couldn't. Suddenly he was there and immediately I went down again. While I was diving I thought, Well, what do I do now? Some pilots said that in such a case you just go down to tree-top level and go home. But I thought, Well, that sounds too easy, so I decided to climb up again which was a big mistake that an experienced man

Me 109 Pilot Thahks to www.luftschutz-bunker.de

would not have made." Bruno escaped with his life, chased by two Spitfires "shooting occasionally" until he crash landed his Me-109.

The English .303 caliber bullets had a hard time bringing down ‘109's, but were enough to bring down the dive-bomber Stukas. The terror of the skies turned out to be slow and clumsy when they weren't diving to drop their bombs. Stuka attacks quickly dwindled and the "terrors" were soon given other work. The small-caliber bullets had enough hitting power to drop the also-slow twin-engine Me-110 fighters. And the British bullets damaged or destroyed the Luftwaffe's medium bombers.

Part wood Hurricanes were inferior fighters to the Me-109's, but shot down many German fighters anyway. Hurricanes could take a lot of damage. Hurricane pilots proved braver and smarter than expected, and sent a lot of German aircraft out of the sky.

The RAF's "sport plane" Spitfire was chief defense against the superior German fighters. The Spit' could out-turn the Me-109 if not out-climb or out-dive it, and proved a worthy opponent despite some problems. The Spit's carburetor would cut out during aerobatics, something the German pilots quickly noticed and took advantage of. Their own planes were fuel-injected and didn't have that problem. Nevertheless, the Spitfire with its graceful wings became the symbol of British resistance, even if the dogged workhorse Hurricane brought down far more of the enemy. The Spit' was updated with cannons, fuel injection, and more powerful Rolls-Royce engines. Eventually, when Luftwaffe chief Goering asked the great "experten" pilot Adolph Galland what he needed to stop the British, his answer was "Spitfires".

Destruction and damage to English airfields brought the RAF to the edge of desperation. Phase Two of the German plan would have succeeded in a few more weeks of bombing by the Luftwaffe in 1940. Soon their aircraft would have been forced into long-distance interception just as German planners wanted. Enter the hand of fate. A German bomber crew in trouble had to rid themselves of their bomb load and accidentally dropped them on London, despite Hitler's stern orders not to hit the English population.It was a psychological blow. English Prime Minister Winston Churchill answered it by ordering a night bomber raid against Berlin. Goering had sworn German cities would not be bombed. But it was tit for tat, and the Brits' got a great lift of spirit, as Americans did when Jimmy Doolittle's B-25's took off from an aircraft carrier and bombed Japan after Pearl Harbor. It was a change in tactics just in time to save the RAF airfields.


Phase Three turned out not to be an invasion, but the German bombing "Blitz"of cities like Portsmouth, Somerset, Coventry, Liverpool, Preston, South Wales and especially the capital of London. The lives lost by civilians saved the RAF---and their nation. By September 17, Hitler's invasion date, the Battle of Britain was effectively won. More German craft than British were lost that day and every day. Air superiority was out of reach. Hitler postponed "Operation Sea Lion" indefinitely. He turned east to the Soviet Union.

The war wasn't over though the battle really ended by mid-October. A careful check of records on both sides show 1,733 German aircraft were lost, and 915 British planes downed in those three months of the Battle of Britain. About half of what either side publicly claimed. It wasn't just propaganda. Two fighters shooting at one aircraft might each claim a victory. Gun cameras weren't added for movie entertainment, but to keep track of such things.

The flying and fighting continued. RAF pilots, who included seven Americans, kept busy night-fighting the Blitz after the daylight raids proved too costly for the Luftwaffe. The searchlights would find the bombers or fighters, or radar would on some aircraft. Even the slow Blenheims got five in one night. British aircraft companies kept busy bringing new and more capable aircraft to the fighting front. The deHavilland Mosquito, also made mostly of molded plywood for easy production in British wood shops and factories, had twin Rolls-Royce engines. It showed up for service a year later. The "Mossie" was as fast as a fighter, and was used as one, as well as a fighter-bomber for ground support, reconnaissance, and every other conceivable function. Later, when Germany's aircraft factories were heavily bombed, their engineers openly envied the easy-to-construct Mossie, "which any piano-maker could build".

Hawker Tempest Thanks to The Hawker Tempest Page

Even more advanced aircraft were coming on fast: the American P-51 Mustang with a Rolls-Royce engine for long-range bomber escort, the Hawker Typhoon fighter-bomber and the fearsome Tempest –capable of challenging the German jet Me-262 at low altitudes and blowing up V-1 buzz bombs. England produced its own jet, the Gloster Meteor, before war's end.

England became an island fortress instead of being invaded, a staging area for Allied troops and military equipment. The troops included the vast U.S. forces that plunged together with their friends back across the Channel and invaded Nazi-held Europe on D-Day, 1944.

The summer and fall of 1940 made the difference. The years that followed confirmed its importance. What might have happened if Germany had conquered England? The Many do owe their thanks to the Few for what they accomplished in the Battle of Britain.

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